This article extension was a long time coming giving that I felt there had been at some time in the past a merger of moon and mountain god worship sometime after the Theran Eruption to which I suspect is the basis for the story of Exodus, Mt Sinai, and the equating of El Shaddai with Yahweh. It would appear upon further review that my hunch in my previous article is very likely. However, I would strongly suggest reading the article chapter on the subject before continuing with this article here:
In this Chapter I discussed how it is possible that the evicted Hyksos and their Asaiatic deity Ba'al Har'ran (Moon GOD Sin) may be involved in Yahweh's association to Mt Sinai. And as noted in this Chapter, Mt Sinai means "Moon Mountain" in connection to the Moon God Sin according various sources that include the Jewish Encyclopedia:
1.) According to biblical scholars, Sinai most likely derives from the name of Sin, the Semitic lunar deity.[a][b] In the Hasidic tradition, the name Sinai derives from “sin-ah,” (meaning hatred), in reference to the other nations hating the Jews out of jealousy, due to the Jews being the ones to receive the divine laws.[c].
c. ↑“This Land is My Land: A Breslov Perspective on the Holy Land,” Breslov Research Institute. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
d. Easton’s Biblical Dictionary - Biblestudytools.com
e. Holman Bible Dictionary - Studylight.org
2.) Horeb is thought to mean glowing/heat, which seems to be a reference to the sun, while Sinai may have derived from the name of Sin, the Sumerian deity of the moon, and thus Sinai and Horeb would be the mountain of the moon and sun, respectively..
1 “Mount Horeb”. Jewish Encyclopedia.
2 Matthew Black and H. H. Rowley, ed. (1963). “Exodus”. Peake’s Commentary on the Bible (second edition ed.). Thomas Nelson. pp. section 178c.
This was further evidence to the possible connection of El Shaddai and Amarru being likely the same deity. This is still debated, but I may offer insight to which may make them more likely connected than not. This giving El Shaddai means "God Of The Mountains / Mountain Dweller" while Amarru's connection to this epithet of El Shaddai is noted as follows:
Shaddai is a derivation of a Semitic stem that appears in the Akkadian shadû(“mountain”) and shaddā`û or shaddû`a“mountain dweller”, one of the names of Amurru. Amurru/Martu was probably a western Semitic god originally. He is sometimes described as a ‘shepherd’ or as a storm god, and as a son of the sky-god Anu. He is sometimes called bêlu šadī or bêl šadê, ‘lord of the mountain’; dúr-hur-sag-gá sikil-a-ke, ‘He who dwells on the pure mountain’; and kur-za-gan ti-[la], ‘who inhabits the shining mountain’. In Cappadocian Zinčirli inscriptions he is called ì-li a-bi-a, ‘the god of my father‘. Accordingly, it has been suggested by L. R. Bailey (1968) and Jean Ouelette (1969), that this Bêl Šadê might be the same as the Biblical ’Ēl Šaddāi who is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the “Priestly source” of narrative, according to the documentary hypothesis. Amurru also has storm-god features. Like Adad, Amurru bears the epithet ramān ‘thunderer’, and he is even called bāriqu ‘hurler of the thunderbolt’ and Adad ša a-bu-be ‘Adad of the deluge’. Yet his iconography is distinct from that of Adad, and he sometimes appears alongside Adad with a baton of power or throwstick, while Adad bears a conventional thunderbolt. Amurru’s wife is sometimes the goddess Ašratum (see Asherah) who in northwest Semitic tradition and Hittite tradition appears as wife of the god Ēl which suggests that Amurru may indeed have been a variation of that god. If Amurru was identical with Ēl, it would explain why so few Amorite names are compounded with the name Amurru, but so many are compounded with Il; that is, with Ēl.
These connections seem very deep, but I recently came across a journal to which purposes an argument against El Shaddai and Armarru as being the same deity. He argues that since Amarru is associated directly to the moon god Sin, or ba'al Har'ron, these two couldn't possibly be associated. This appears to be his main argument to which you can note in this citation here:
There is substantial evidence to support the identification of Bel Sade, the god of the Amurru-land, with a lunar diety, specifically with Sin. (1) Harran, from at least the Middle Bronze period until the late Middle Ages, was regarded as a major sanctuary of the moon-god Sin. And we know in particular that the Amurru-peoples concluded treaties in his temple during the Mari period *22. (2) There are a number of seal cylinders on which the god Amurru, recognizable by inscription, curved staff,*23 and sacred gazelle, *24 is shown standing under a lunar Crescent.*25 If this is felt insufficient to establish his lunar nature, the fact that he sometimes hold or stands before a cult standard atop which is a crescent certainly strongly suggests it. *26 (3) Once we find the sacred staff of the god Amurru on the seal of a devotee of the GOD Sin. The inscription reads: E-til-pi,-Istar....arad "Sin. 28*. (4) Several individuals with theophoric names of the Sin-type describe themselves on their seals as servant of the god Amurru. 29* We may reasonably conclude, therefore, that the god worshiped by the nomadic Amurru-peoples in the Balih-Harron region by the epithets "Amurru" and "Bel Sade", at the time of the Mari and Old Babylonian texts, was a Lunar Deity.
On the surface this seems like a reasonable argument. But the problem I see with this argument is not the strong connection to the lunar deity SIN, but rather the ignoring of "Bel Sade", "Lord of the Mountain", and dúr-hur-sag-gá sikil-a-ke, ‘He who dwells on the pure mountain’; and kur-za-gan ti-[la], ‘who inhabits the shining Mountain". These to which were all directly subscribed to this deity. Hence Amurru wasn't simply just a Lunar deity, he was more specifically a Moon Mountain god. Though despite also ignoring that Amurru's wife is likely the same Goddess as El Shaddai's wife "Asherah", the thing that intrigued me most here is what Mt Sinai signifies here., that moon mountain likely associated to Amarru. The very mountain and abode to El Shaddai and Yahweh while also having a very interesting connection to the story of the eviction of the Israelites within the narrative of Exodus. This story largely considered fictional in it's telling may actually be an embellished narrative of the eviction of the Hyksos from Egypt as I suspected. Hence there is way to many connections here to be considered coincidental, especially when the Hyksos Asiatic deity was Ba'al Harran, the moon god sin. This lends support to my hunch that shortly after the Eruption of Therah and their eviction from Egypt, they likely joined the semi-nomadic tribes of Canaan also known as the Shasu. And upon their joining there is the noted Shasu of YHW to which may give us a deep clue to the rise of Yahwism and how Yahweh came to usurp El Shaddai and be equated to this god head of the Canaanite Pantheon. I thus do not see a valid argument for the separation of Amurru and El Shaddai as suggested. Hence I find it rather ironic that this paper makes more of a case for the latter of its argument when we cross reference other sources to which includes the following source on Traces Of The Moon God SIN Among The Early Israelites. These connections are further linked giving we also have the issue that Shaddai was an Amorite city:
Shaddai was a late Bronze Age Amorite city on the banks of the Euphrates river, in northern Syria, as well as the name, or a signifying epithet of a West Semitic deity, whose name was attached by the Hebrews to that of El as one of the names of God in Judaism. The site of the ruin-mound of Shaddai is called Tell eth-Thadyen, “Thadyen” being the modern Arabic rendering of the original West Semitic “Shaddai”. It has been conjectured that El Shaddai was therefore the “god of Shaddai”. According to Exodus 6:2, 3, Shaddai was the name by which God was known to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Shaddai thus being associated in tradition with Abraham“
This being a city of the Amurru-peoples, the Amorites, to which would strongly suggest that Amurru, El Shaddai (EL), and Sin are one of the same deity rather than separate deities. Their epithets are nearly identical with deep connections even in biblical narratives of the bible. Thus I think it is fair to conclude we are dealing with a Moon Mountain god, and likely a Volcano GOD of War giving the descriptions, texts, and narratives examined thus far. And in closing, this article may be updated in regards to further evidence I am currently tracking down. I won't say what it is yet, but if it turns out it could really alter the perspective of commonly held understanding of how Christianity came to be as it is today.
-- TheJackel --